In today’s lesson, I am going to Teach you Direct and Indirect speech with videos lesson in the Urdu Language.
1- Direct and Indirect Speech – Definition
Sometimes, we use the same words which we have been heard by the speaker and proceed with them. And sometimes we make some changes to these words. To deal with these types of situations, we always you two types of speeches. Today, you will learn all about direct and indirect speech in the Urdu language.
2- What are Direct and Indirect speeches?
I want to explain it by an example. You are standing before your house and your uncle comes and says to you “Ali, inform your mother that I will come tonight”. Now, you have two ways to proceed with this message to your mother;
- uncle said to me, “I will come tonight.” – > Direct speech
- Uncle said to me that he would come that night. -> Indirect speech
You saw. Both speeches have the same meaning but have said in different ways. Thus always remember that we hear or take a message to tell others, we have to ways which are direct speech and indirect speech.
The Elements of Report in Direct Speech
- A sentence in direct speech uses double inverted commas or quotation marks (“”) to place the exact words used by the speaker.
- The group of words within the quotation marks is called the quote.
- The verb used outside the quotation marks is called the verb of speaking or reporting verb.
In the example here;
Uncle said to me that “I will come tonight.”
“I will come tonight” is the quote. It is placed within the quotation marks. This group refers to the exact words used by you. The word “said” is a reporting verb placed outside the quotation marks.
Parts of Direct Speech
A sentence in direct speech contains two parts:
- reporting clause; and
- the quote.
A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate and forms parts of a sentence. In indirect speech, the group of words that contains the reporting verb or the main verb is called the reporting clause.
3 -Narration Rules – Changes in Person of Pronouns
|Direct Narration||Indirect Narration|
|1- He says, “I am busy.”||1- He says that he is busy.|
|2- She says, “My car is new.”||2- She says that her car is new.|
|3- You say, “My brother is very kind to me.”||3- You say that your brother is very kind to you.|
|4- They will say, “We do not sing well.”||4- They will say that they do not sing well.|
|5- I will say, “I have spoken the truth.”||5- I will say that I have spoken the truth.|
|6- She says to us, “I am your teacher.”||6- She says to us that she is our teacher.|
|7- He says to us, “I respect you.”||7- He says to us that he respects us.|
|8- They say to me, “You cannot help him.”||8- They say to me that I cannot help him.|
|9- You will say to him, “Your brother beats them.”||9- You will say to him that his brother beats them.|
|10- We say to her, “Your uncle will not hate them.”||10- We say to her that her uncle will not hate them.|
You can see that in Changing a sentence from the direct into the indirect speech:-
1- All pronouns of the first person are changed according to the SUBJECT of Reporting Verb.
2- All pronouns of the SECOND PERSON are changed according to the OBJECT of the Reporting Verb.
3- All pronouns of the THIRD PERSON remain unchanged.
4- Narration Rules – Changes in The tenses of verbs
1- The verb in the Reported Speech is not Changed if the verb in the Reporting Speech is in the Present Tense or in the Future Tense.
|Direct Narration||Indirect Narration|
|1- He says to us, “You are late.”||1- He says to us that we are late.|
|2- You say to them, “We played tennis.”||2- You say to them that you played tennis.|
|3- They say to me, “We will not come.”||3- They say to me that we will not come.|
|4- She will say to us, “I went home.”||4- She will say to us that he went home.|
|5- He will say, “I shall not come.”||5- He will say that I shall not come.|
|6- She will say to us, “You are rich.”||6- She will say to us that we are rich.|
2- The verb in the Reported Speech in changed into the past tense, if the verb in the Reporting Speech is in the Past Tense.
(1) Present Simple Tense into Past Simple Tense
|We said, “We play a match every day.”||We said that we played a match every day.|
(2) Present Continuous Tense into Past Continuous Tense
|She said, “My father is going with me.”||She said that her father was going with her.|
(3) Present Perfect Tense into Past Perfect Tense
|They said, “We have bought a bungalow in Karachi.”||They said that they had bought a bungalow in Karachi.|
(4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense into Past Perfect Continuous Tense
|She said, “I have been eating rice since last evening.”||She said that I had been eating rice since last evening.|
(5) Past Simple Tense into Past Perfect Tense
|He said, “I wrote a letter to my uncle.”||He said that he had written a letter to his uncle.|
(6) Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous Tense
|They said, “We were going to school on foot.”||They said that they had been going to school on foot.|
(7) Past Perfect Tense (Remain Unchanged)
|The doctor said, “I had already seen many patients.”||
The doctor said that he had already seen many patients
(8) Past Perfect Continuous Tense(Remain Unchanged)
|We said, “we had been working since morning.”||We said that we had been working since morning.|
(9) Future Indefinite Tense (e.g will/shall) into “Would”
|The doctor said to him, “She will not test my eyes.”||The doctor said to him that she would not test his eyes.|
(10) Future Continuous Tense (e.g will be) into “Would be”
|He said, “I shall be doing my duty without fail.”||He said that he would be doing his duty without fail.|
(11) Future Perfect Continuous Tense (e.g will have been) into “Would have been”
|She said, “It will have been raining in Karachi since midnight.”||She said that it would have been raining in Karachi since midnight.|