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Rules of Direct and Indirect Narration

We have to follow some narration rules to change the direct speech into the indirect. These rules include changes in the person of pronouns, the tenses of verbs, the expressions of time and others.

narration rules image

Changes in Person of Pronouns

 

Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
 1-  He says, “I am busy.” 1- He says that he is busy.
 2- She says, “My car is new.” 2- She says that her car is new.
 3- You say, “My brother is very kind to me.” 3- You say that your brother is very kind to you.
 4- They will say, “We do not sing well.” 4- They will say that they do not sing well.
 5- I will say, “I have spoken the truth.” 5- I will say that I have spoken the truth.
 6- She says to us, “I am your teacher.” 6- She says to us that she is our teacher.
 7- He says to us, “I respect you.” 7- He says to us that he respects us.
 8- They say to me, “You cannot help him.” 8- They say to me that I cannot help him.
 9- You will say to him, “Your brother beats them.” 9- You will say to him that his brother beats them.
 10- We say to her, “Your uncle will not hate them.” 10- We say to her that her uncle will not hate them.

Note: –

You can see that in Changing a sentence from the direct into the indirect speech:-

1- All pronouns of the first person are changed according to the SUBJECT of Reporting Verb.

2- All pronouns of the SECOND PERSON are changed according to the OBJECT of the Reporting Verb.

3- All pronouns of the THIRD PERSON remain unchanged.

 

 

Changes in The tenses of verbs

 

1- The verb in the Reported Speech is not Changed if the verb in the Reporting Speech is in the Present Tense or in the Future Tense.

Examples: –

Direct NarrationIndirect Narration
 1-  He says to us, “You are late.” 1- He says to us that we are late.
 2-  You say to them, “We played tennis.” 2- You say to them that you played tennis.
 3- They say to me, “We will not come.” 3- They say to me that we will not come.
 4- She will say to us, “I went home.” 4- She will say to us that he went home.
 5- He will say, “I shall not come.” 5- He will say that I shall not come.
 6- She will say to us, “You are rich.” 6- She will say to us that we are rich.

 

 

2- The verb in the Reported Speech in changed into the past tense, if the verb in the Reporting Speech is in the Past Tense.

 

(1) Present Simple Tense into Past Simple Tense

Example: –

DirectIndirect
    We said, “We play a match every day.”We said that we played a match every day.

 

(2) Present Continuous Tense into Past Continuous Tense

Example:-

DirectIndirect
She said, “My father is going with me.”She said that her father was going with her.

 

(3) Preset Perfect Tense into Past Perfect Tense

Example:-

DirectIndirect
They said, “We have bought a bungalow in Karachi.” They said that they had bought a bungalow in Karachi.

 

(4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense into Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Example:-

DirectIndirect
She said, “I have been eating rice since last evening.” She said that I had been eating rice since last evening.

 

(5) Past Simple Tense into Past Perfect Tense

Example:-

DirectIndirect
He said, “I wrote a letter to my uncle.” He said that he had written a letter to his uncle.

 

(6) Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Example:-

DirectIndirect
They said, “We were going to school on foot.” They said that they had been going to school on foot.

 

(7) Past Perfect Tense (Remain Unchanged)

Example:-

DirectIndirect
The doctor said, “I had already seen many patients.”

  The doctor said that he had already seen many patients

 

(8) Past Perfect Continuous Tense(Remain Unchanged)

Example:-

DirectIndirect
We said, “we had been working since morning.” We said that we had been working since morning.

 

(9) Future Indefinite Tense (e.g will/shall) into “Would”

Example:-

DirectIndirect
The doctor said to him, “She will not test my eyes.” The doctor said to him that she would not test his eyes.

(10) Future Continuous Tense (e.g will be) into “Would be”

Example:-

DirectIndirect
He said, “I shall be doing my duty without fail.” He said that he would be doing his duty without fail.

 

(11) Future Perfect Continuous Tense (e.g will have been) into “Would have been”

Example:-

DirectIndirect
She said, “It will have been raining in Karachi since midnight.” She said that it would have been raining in Karachi since midnight.